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Languages of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is one of the most colourful and diverse states of India. The principal Rajasthan language is Hindi, but it’s spoken in its various dialects all across Rajasthan. Rajasthan people and language are something that has been an interest to scholars of language all over the world. In totality Rajasthan language comprises of five principal dialects:

1. Marwari
2. Mewari
3. Dhundhari
4. Mewati
5. Harauti

These and many other secondary dialects make up the Rajasthan language.

These dialects have evolved over time and many of the finest Rajasthani classics have been written in these dialects.

Marwari

Many people think that Rajasthan people and language are synonymous with Marwari. This is partly true because it the most commonly spoken language in Rajasthan, but spoken mainly the region in and around the district of Jodhpur.

In the district of Barmer, Pali, Jalore, and Naguar, a mixed dialect of Marwari is spoken by the people residing there. Marwari has also influenced the dialects of the eastern regions of the state, like Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Ajmer, and Bhilwara. The Rajasthan language dialect in the north has also been affected by Marwari especially in the districts of Chur, Sikar, Junjhunu, and Bikaner. The Sirohi district in the south and the district of Jaisalmer in the west also have a mixed dialect largely consisting of Marwari. As can be seen the Rajasthan people and language are heavily influenced by Marwari.

Mewari

The Rajasthan language known as ‘Mewari’ is actually a form of Marwari that is spoken in the eastern region of the State. As the name suggests, this language is common in the region of Mewar. This former princely state lies in the south-east part of Rajasthan. The princely state of Mewar encompassed the districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, and Udaipur including their neighborhoods. As is the case of Marwari this Rajasthan language is also spoken in its various dialects. The dialect called ‘Thali’ is used in the western parts of Thar, Parkar, Jaisalmer, Barmer. In Bikaner, the dialect is called ‘Bikaneri’ and is known as ‘Bagri’ in the northeastern part of Churu

Dhundhari, Mewati, Harauti

In terms of Rajasthan people and language the 'dhudhari' or 'Jaipuri' is the second most commonly used dialect in Rajasthan. It is widely used in the districts of Kota, Tonk, Jaipur, Ajmer, Jhalawar, parts of Kishangarh, and Bundi. 'Mewati' is a sub-dialect of 'Dhundhari' and is usually spoken in the north eastern parts of the state. In the area in and around Bharatpur this dialect takes the form of 'Braja Bhasha'. In Sawai Madhopur and Karauli, a sub-dailect of 'Braja Bhasha' is used called 'Dang'.

The Rajasthan language that is spoken in Ajmer is commonly know as 'Ajmeri' and that spoken in Kishangarh is called 'Kishangarhi'. 'Harauti' is a dialect that is spoken in the region of Bundi, Kota, Jhalwar, and Tonk.

Other dialects

There are many other dialects that form an integral part of Rajasthan people and language. Parts of Jhalwar and Kota districts, of the former Malva speak a dialect called 'Malvi'. Other dialects include, 'Marathi' of Berar, 'Bundeli' of Narsinghpur, and the 'Nemadi' dialect that is spoken in Bhansawar and Nimach.

The Bhil tribals of Rajasthan communicate in 'Bhili', which resembles the 'Bagria' that is spoken in Banswara and Dungarpur. The only difference lies in the pronunciation but there is only a minimal variation in this regard.

As can be seen the variety of dialects and sub-dialects of Rajasthan language can make a mind boggle! This just adds to the richness of history, culture and tradition of Rajasthan.